Status of selected nutrients and progression of human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 infection.
Am J Clin Nutr 2000 Sep;72(3):809-15 (ISSN: 0002-9165)
Bogden JD; Kemp FW; Han S; Li W; Bruening K; Denny T; Oleske
JM; Lloyd J; Baker H; Perez G; Kloser P; Skurnick J; Louria DB Department
of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, the University of Medicine
and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Newark.firstname.lastname@example.org.
BACKGROUND: Immune function is highly dependent on nutritional status
because the large mass and high rate of cellular turnover of the immune
system make it a major user of nutrients. Furthermore, nutrient requirements
may be increased during acute and chronic infections, including HIV-1
infection. OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed to assess relations
among HIV-1 progression and 11 nutritional and demographic variables.
DESIGN: The participants were 106 HIV-infected outpatients and 29 uninfected
control subjects (n = 89 men and 46 women; age range: 35-57 y). The HIV-infected
subjects represented a broad range of disease progression. RESULTS: We
found lower concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte magnesium and of
erythrocyte reduced glutathione beginning early in the course of HIV-1
infection. Significantly decreased hematocrit and increased serum copper
concentration developed only late in the course of the disease. Statistically
significant univariate associations were found between the CD4(+) T lymphocyte
count and hematocrit, plasma magnesium concentration, and plasma zinc
concentration. The lowest erythrocyte magnesium concentrations occurred
in HIV-infected subjects who consumed alcoholic beverages. Independent
variables that were significant joint predictors of CD4(+) cell count
in multiple regression analyses were hematocrit and plasma free choline
and zinc concentrations. These 3 factors together explained 43% of the
variability in CD4(+) cell counts. CONCLUSION: The results provide evidence
that compromised nutritional and antioxidant status begin early in the
course of HIV-1 infection and may contribute to disease progression.