Effect of black and green tea polyphenols on c-jun phosphorylation and H(2)O(2) production in transformed and non-transformed human bronchial cell lines: possible mechanisms of cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction.
Carcinogenesis 2000 Nov;21(11):2035-9
Yang GY; Liao J; Li C; Chung J; Yurkow EJ; Ho CT; Yang CS
Laboratory for Cancer Research and Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy and Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0789, USA.
The biological activities of theaflavin (TF), theaflavin gallate (TFG) and theaflavin digallate (TFdiG) from black tea and (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) from green tea were investigated using SV40-immortalized (33BES) and Ha-ras gene transformed (21BES) human bronchial epithelial cell lines. Growth inhibition and cell viability were measured by trypan blue dye exclusion assay following 24 h treatment with the tea polyphenols. TFdiG, EGC and EGCG displayed comparable inhibitory effects on the growth of 21BES cells, with estimated IC(50) values of 22-24 microM. TFG exhibited a lower inhibitory activity (IC(50) 37 microM) and TF was even less effective (IC(50) 47 microM) in this cell line. A similar effect was also observed in 33BES cells. These results suggest that the gallate structure of theaflavins is important for growth inhibition. Exposure of 21BES cells to 25 microM TFdiG, EGC and EGCG for 24 h led to induction of cell apoptosis/death as determined by the Annexin V apoptosis assay. With TFdiG treatment cell death occurred early, and quickly peaked at 8-12 h. Morphological observations showed that TFdiG-treated cells appeared irregular in shape, with cytoplasmic granules, suggesting a cytotoxic effect. On the other hand, EGC and EGCG showed a lag phase before a rapid increase in apoptosis between 16 and 24 h, without any marked morphological changes, which was similar to that induced by H(2)O(2). TFdiG, EGC and EGCG induced similar amounts of H(2)O(2) formation in 21BES cells. Exogenously added catalase significantly prevented EGC- and EGCG-induced cell apoptosis, but did not prevent TFdiG-induced cell death, suggesting that H(2)O(2) is involved in the apoptosis induced by EGCG and EGC, but not in TFdiG-induced cell death. EGCG and TFdiG were shown to decrease c-jun protein phosphorylation in 21BES cells. Such inhibition is expected to result in lowered AP-1 activity, which may contribute to the growth inhibitory activity of tea polyphenols.